quarta-feira, 9 de janeiro de 2013

Rainer Forst: "Toleration in Conflict"

A Cambridge Press publicou a tradução inglesa de Toleranz im Konflikt , livro de 2003 no qual o filósofo de frankfurtiano Rainer Forst investiga a constituição histórica e conceitual das concepções de tolerância no pensamento moderno. 

Forst- "Toleration" [verbete escrito pelo autor para a SEP]


Introduction  [excerto]

Part I. Between Power and Morality: The Historical Discourse of Toleration
1. Toleration: Concept and Conceptions
2. More Than a Prehistory: Antiquity and the Middle Age
3. Reconciliation, Schism, Peace: Humanism and the Reformation
4. Toleration and Sovereignty: Political and Individual
5. Natural Law, Toleration and Revolution
6. The Enlightenment – For and Against Toleration
7. Toleration in the Modern Era
8. Routes to Toleration

Part II. A Theory of Toleration:
9. The Justification of Toleration
10. The Finitude of Reason
11. The Virtue of Tolerance
12. The Tolerant Society. 


This raises a series of questions to be answered in the present study: What kind of conflicts call for or permit toleration? Who are the subjects and who or what are the objects of tolerance? What kinds of reasons are there for objecting to what is tolerated and how should the opposed reasons for acceptance be understood? What are the limits of toleration in different cases? 

Any philosophy which seeks to understand social reality must come to terms with this concept. For conflicts which prove to be irresoluble are clearly as much a part of human existence as is the desire that they should not exist. The problem of toleration was familiar even before the concept acquired its enduring, post-Reformation form, if one thinks, for example, of Herodotus’ description of differences among cultures; to put it somewhat grandly, toleration is a general human concern and is not confined to any particular epoch or culture. For as long as there has been religion, the problem of people of different beliefs and the problems of heretics and of nonbelievers have existed. Even more generally, wherever convictions concerning values have taken shape among human beings, the confrontation with others who have opposing convictions presents a challenge which may not admit of a straightforward responsein terms of the valuesin question. If this challenge is to lead to the development of a tolerant attitude, therefore, people first have to perform a complex form of labour on their own convictions. Hence, the struggle against what at a certain point came to be called ‘intolerance’ has a long history; it seems to be the more original phenomenon and it calls for a pacifying, conciliatory or moral response.