terça-feira, 8 de julho de 2014

Justiça Global (Mathias Risse)

O filósofo Christian Barry (Australian National University) resenhou o livro On Global Justice de Mathias Risse para a Notre Dame Philosophical Review. O livro de Risse ganhou destaque por sua proposta ousada de "propriedade comum" do planeta para efeitos de redistribuição e por um enfoque "pluralista" da justiça global. Na resenha, Barry contextualiza a posição de Risse no debate e  explora as possibilidades da tese da propriedade comum. 

Para quem tiver interesse no livro, o essencial pode ser consultado no ensaio de "On Global Justice"  (2010):


Risse calls his approach to global justice "pluralist internationalism" (p. 2). A pluralist internationalist rejects the idea that principles of justice that are appropriate when evaluating social arrangements within a state -- for example, Rawls's justice as fairness, or some other egalitarian principle -- should be applied globally. Risse's view is at odds with positions such as those advocated by Charles Beitz and Thomas Pogge (in their early work), and more recently by Simon Caney, Pablo Gilabert, Darrel Moellendorf, Laura Valentini and Lea Ypi, which would place limits on permissible global inequalities at a fundamental level. However, Risse also rejects the notion that principles of justice should only be applied to states. He thus rejects views (suggested by Thomas Nagel and others) that maintain that we possess duties of justice to compatriots, but only duties of beneficence or humanitarian concern to non-compatriots. On Risse's view, "the state has a special place in accounts of justice. Domestic justice -- justice within the state -- and global justice have different standards, and the former are more egalitarian" (p. 2). Pluralist internationalism is thus "a view of global justice 'between' two standard views, the principles of justice either apply only within states or else apply to all human beings" (p. 17). For the pluralist internationalist, states are normatively peculiar when it comes to justice, but are not the only entities to which justice applies (p. 52).